Cooper Jewelers - Education about diamonds, gemstone, gold in New Jersey
Cooper Jewelers - Warren NJ - Education

Diamond Clarity - Blemishes

Blemishes Caused by Wear

Nick (Nk) - small notch near the girdle or facet junction.

Abrasion (Abr) - tiny nicks along the facet junctions producing white or fuzzy lines instead of sharp edges.

Scratch (S) - thin dull white line across the diamond's surface.

Blemished Caused by the Cutting Process

Extra Facet (EF) - facet not required by the cutting style and located on the girdle.

Polish Lines (PL) - fine parallel lines, ridges, or grooves left by the polishing process. Polish lines are less obvious than scratches and are colorless instead of white.

Burn Marks (Brn) - hazy surface resulting from excessive hear or from uneven polishing caused by structure irregularity.

Rough Girdle (RG) - irregular or pitted girdle.

Pit (Pit) - small opening resembling a white dot.

Blemishes Resulting From Crystal Structure

Natural (N) - portion of the original crystal that remains on the diamond.

Surface Graining (SGr) - transparent lines on the surface of a finished diamond.


Diamond Clarity - Inclusions

Inclusions Totally Enclosed Within a Diamond

Cloud (Cld) - many tightly grouped pinpoints. Clouds look like white or grey patches and if large and dense can reduce transparency and therefore impact brilliance.

Crystal (Xtl) - mineral crystal contained in the diamond. The most common mineral crystals found in a diamond are smaller diamond crystals and dark crystals often referred to by many as "carbon spots" which an inaccurate term.

Needle (Ndl) - long, thin rod like crystal, which can appear white, dark, or bright.

Pinpoint (Pp) - very small crystal that looks like a dot. Pinpoints are mostly white, but can appear dark.

Inclusions Totally Enclosed Within a Diamond Resulting From Crystal Structure

Internal graining (IntGr) - caused by irregularities in crystal growth. Internal graining can be shaped as lines, angles, or curves and can appear whitish, colored, or reflective.

Grain center (GrCnt) - small concentrated area of crystal growth. The grain center can either appear white or dark and may have a thread like or pinpoint appearance.

Twinning wisp (W) - series of pinpoints, clouds, or crystals that form in a twinned diamond's growth plane. They appear flat and look like a ribbon and usually begin at the diamond's center.

Inclusions Reaching or Extending Into a Diamond From the Surface

Bearded girdle (BG) - very tiny feathers that extend from the girdle to the diamond. A heavily bearded girdle will cause a grey fuzzy appearance around the stone.

Bruise (Br) - tiny area of surface crumbling often accompanied by very small root like feathers.

Feather (Ftr) - any break in a diamond. Feathers can present more of a durability issue than any other inclusion. One hard knock may make them larger. Feathers appear white or transparent.

Knot (K) - included crystal that reaches the surface after fashioning.

Chip (Ch) - shallow opening (usually small, but can be large), curved or rounded in appearance and is located at the girdle, facet junction, or culet.

Cavity (Cv) - angular opening formed when part of a feather beaks away.

Indented natural (IndN) - portion of the original crystal that falls below the diamond's surface.

Inclusions Caused by Treatment

Laser drill hole (LDH) - tiny channel made by a laser. The surface opening may resemble a pit while the channel looks like a needle or a narrow spike. This is evidence of enhancement and AGS standards require disclosure.